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Betrayal, Trickery, Cruelty of Tigrayan Rulers on the people of Eritrea 2020

Betrayal, Trickery, Cruelty of Tigrayan Rulers on the people of Eritrea

Betrayal, Trickery, Cruelty of Tigrayan Rulers on the people of Eritrea

By Tesfahannes Beyene

The twisting road that you see above, goes from Asmara to Keren is called “Libi Tigray” because the Tigrayan rulers are seen as twisted like the road (Tigray is the part of Ethiopia that borders Eritrea).
The reason given by the local people was that Eritreans experienced betrayal, deceit and atrocities at the hands of past Tigreyan rulers, especially at the hands of the Grandchildren of Ras Alula (TPLF leadership) who used the border dispute as a smoke screen, then declared war, invaded, loot, to dismember and commit genocide on the Golden people of Eritrea. It was a crime against humanity. A border dispute does not require deploying 13 divisions or more than 130.000

soldiers, while thousands of civilian Militias were brought to loot Eritrean towns, thereby to reverse the Glorious Eritrea revolution. Of course, Eritrea paid very high price but won a victory earned through blood, sweet, and tears. But even in their hour of defeat TPLF remnants are still at it again, spreading fake news via Tigray House Media and a few sell-out Eritrean betrayers to create confusion and discord among Eritrean youth, the people of Eritrea and Tigray. The question that need to be asked here is, why? Why? Why? Why? Betray the Eritrean people who helped them take the crown of power in Ethiopia. To then subsequently bite the hand that feed them – breaking their promise to any promise they made. They are now emperors without clothing, their time is up, the nets are closing fast, the noose is tightening, they have no where to run, sooner or later they will be caught red handed.BETRAYAL:According to Wikipedia, betrayal is the breaking or violation of a presumptive contract, trust, or confidence that produces moral and psychological conflict with in relationship amongst individuals groups, organizations or between individuals and organizations. Often betrayal is the act of supporting a rival group or it is a complete break from previously decided upon or presumed norms by one party from the others. Someone who betrays others is commonly called a traitor or a betrayer. But the irony of betrayal is that when you are betrayed, you sometimes end up betraying yourself. In the following article, the writer will discuss the following:
                              (1) Betrayal of Jesus Christ during Biblical times.
                              (2) Betrayal of British Member of Parliament (MP) to his constituency.
                              (3) Betrayal, deceit of Past Tigreyan Rulers on the people of Eritrea.
                              (4) Conclusion.
                              (5) Battle of Adwa Belligerents.
                              (6) Scanned Eritrean News paper Mekaleh Tigrina printed 16 February 1999 about Tigreyan Rulers attempt to control Eritrean Highlands and the resistance they were facing by Eritrean heroes.(1) Betrayal of JesusBetrayal is not new, even during biblical times, the story of betrayal was marked with blood, sweet and tears., That Jesus was betrayed by Judas for money. The reason being Jesus was loved adored and had many followers. Other priests were jealous and afraid of him, and so they plot his downfall. His popularity was so high that many people used to come and kiss his hands and feet. As a result, Mary suggested to the 12 apostles, that one of them anoint (oiled) Jesus’ feet with expensive ‘perfume. Judas was annoyed because he was the one who took care of the money for their food and their needs. Judas was complaining that. perfume should have been sold instead. So his plot or betrayal was that he (Judas) kissed Jesus’ feet so that the Roman soldiers and other priests would arrest Jesus and kill him. Eventually however Judas did what he said he will do. Jesus was arrested and crucified. Judas later regretted his betrayal and committed suicide. One may ask why Jesus was killed? The main reason was that, he was political aspirant, seen as a revolutionary, he was seen as a threat due to his popularity, he was seen as a Messiah, a political enemy. Thus Roman authorities saw him as a political preacher – they decided to arrest and kill him.(2) Betrayal of British Member of Parliament:Following general election held in 6 May 2010 in the UK, the result of the election was that the conservatives got 306 seats in parliament, Labour 258 the Liberals 57 Sets. The conservatives were short of 20 seats of a majority. The required number of seats needed to govern in the UK presently is 326 out of 650 constituencies. So the conservatives opted to go in to coalition with the liberals, whose combined total number of seats would be a majority. The latter hasn’t been in power since the end of second world war so the temptation for power was great. The leaders of the conservative party (David Cameron) and liberal democrats (Nick Clegg) formed a coalition to govern for 5 years. Nick Clegg was awarded a powerful position in the coalition government and became Deputy Prime minister of the British government. Many of his supporters were unhappy with him for pushing his party to go to bed with the Conservatives. Looking, back one of the most outrageous thing he did before the election was that he promised the British public that his party would stick to its manifesto pledge, that he will fight tooth and nail not to increase students fees which was £1,000 under labour in 1998 and increased to £3,200 per year in 2009, under labour government.  As winners of the 20010 General election, the coalition Government tabled a motion to increase students fees by ridiculously huge amount of money. However, when reality check was done to increase the students fee, Nick Clegg the MP who made an oath not to increase students fees, simply changed his mind, betraying his previous commitments and agreed with many of his MPs to treble the students fees to a maximum fees of £9.000 per year.Under the raised fees, students graduate with £50.000 of debt, £90.000 for medical students including maintenance costs. Nick Clegg, the Deputy Prime minster, betrayed his pledge to keep the fees frozen, destroying their trust by lying or misleading them into believing he was honest.  The British public was outraged by his sell out behaviour and were shocked and went to the extent of sending him dog excrement to his address for his betrayal.  Some of his liberal democrats MPs have even called him Judas, because he broke his election manifesto commitment, and said to him “liar, liar your pants are on fire” for causing enormous damage and bringing stress to UK students. In the following election, he was not re-elected in his constituency (Sheffield) lost his seat in disgrace and was booted out. Since 2018 he has been vice president for Global Affairs communication for Facebook.So far, I have discussed betrayal of Jesus Christ and betrayal of the British Member of Parliament:
(3) Now look at the political betrayal by Abyssinian rulers on the people of Eritrea.Over the course of the 19th century, the period was characterized by violence, conspiracy to commit political murder among rivals, causing displacement and anxiety among communities. The rulers from South of the Mereb river (Ethiopia) were mainly focused on their own leadership, they aimed to conquer and loot other rival communities so that they can exercise ultimate power by force. During this period, Machiavellian political thinking was widely practised for instance “it is better to be feared than loved if you can not be both”, using this philosophy, the Abyssinian rulers manipulated and deceived to achieve their own goals even to the extent where a promise was broken to further their interest. They retained their authority by fear and punishment. In the modern world, Machiavellian thinking is alive and kicking, widely practised globally with some cosmetic changes and is now part and parcel of our legacy. With this concept in mind, the Abyssinian rulers, from time to time, would cross Mereb river to the Eritrean side to force communities to pay tribute or levy them. It should be remembered that the people of Eritrea and Ethiopia have lived in close proximity of brotherhood for years. There has also been cross border trade, intermarriage, a similar culture, linguistic affinity, religion and history.  There have also been negative experiences such as looting and kidnapping. Abyssinian rulers believed that might is right, that the stronger you are the better survival you have until your turn comes. That has been the history of the 19th century and to use the phrase of the time: those that take with the sword, shall perish with the sword. Taking the phrase into consideration, it is from this historical perspective that the writer will explain what was happening to the people of Eritrea North of Mereb by Abyssinian rulers. By the way, the word Abyssinia is historical name of Ethiopia. It was renamed Ethiopia around 4th century by King Ezana as a new Christian name for a kingdom he was converting.  The term Abyssinian is used to describe the dominant racial group in Ethiopia which inhabits the province of Amhara, Tigray, Gojam, Shoa, (reference: Eritrea a colony in transition 1941-1952 by G. K. N. Travaskis, by page 11). Therefore Abyssinia rulers of the time (Tigrayan) like Ras Wube Haile Maryam, Ras Alula Aba Nega were predominant figures of their time. With their superior army, they would cross Mereb River and come to Eritrean highlands, to impose their will, but without complete success. Sometimes they use to leave representatives behind to make sure tributes were levied regularly. In fact Abyssinian tribute at the time extended as far as Suakin in Sudan but Imperial Ethiopia never claimed Sudanese territories (Basil Davidson) Thus during the pre colonial era, Eritreans resisted being ruled from across Mereb South and the relationship between Abyssinian rulers and the Eritrean rulers was described by many writers as that of Raiders and the RaidedIn Traviskis view, Abyssinian raiders into highland and lowlands of Eritrea never remained to garrison – they plundered, but never governed.During this period the most prominent Eritrean leaders frequently quoted at the time were Matiyowos Aninno with his golden Mido Afro comb from Adi Hagerai town, and Ras Weldemicaiel Solomon the hero of the Eritrean highlands. The language spoken North and South of Mereb river originated from Geez, the accent is different and Eritreans never considered themselves to be Tigreyans and Tigreyans never considered themselves to be Eritreans. South of Mereb river, the Abyssinian ruler at the time was Dejezmatch Wube Hailemariam, born in 1800 and died in 1867.  Wube was remembered for his barbarous military raids into the highlands of Eritrea. According to the Eritrean newspaper called Mekaleh (Echo) 16 February 1999, he unsuccessfully tried to force Eritrean communities under his control to pay tribute. Between 1840 and 1848 he carried out widespread raids causing havoc among Eritrea villages in the highlands and has even gone as as far as in the Habab and Barka area requesting pillaging everywhere taking, slaves, livestock gold anything he can find valuable (D Avy 1996 page 61). He was depicted as the cruellest invader of all time causing tremendous stress and anxiety during his legacy. For those who refuse to pay, the retribution was tremendous including displacement. Dejezmatch Wube of Tigray was known for his cruelty through out the communities both in the highlands and lowlands of Eritrea. Wube was characterized in songs and folk tales as the cruellest invader of all time. The Tigrinya saying for him was Bigiziye Wube zitzememe Wube kible Nebere.  One who lost hearing at the time of Wube knows only to utter the word Wube for the rest of his life. (D Avy 1996 Page 61). The Eritrean saying is simply a reflection of the stress and impact he had left in their memory during his time. As it is commonly said, what goes round comes back round, that Wube, who lived by the sword died by the sword, as he was defeated and imprisoned by his remaining rivals Alula in 1855 (see also Redi Bereketab). Alula Engida, born in 1827 in Abi Adi Tembien province, died in 15 Feb 1897 in Tembien.He is also known by his horse name Aba Nega or Alula Qubi. During this period, Ras Yohannes was ruler of Ethiopia. In 1870, Yohannes was also remembered for his cruelty against Tigrayan Muslims. Yohannes was a very religious man, imposing religious uniformity on his kingdom that required all Muslims and Pagans to convert to Christianity within two years, or leave the country. For those who refused to convert, persecution against them was wide spread and many Tigrayan Muslim’s managed to flee to the Eritrean highlands. It was during this period that Alula became an Ethiopian general and a famous politician from Tigray, one of the most important leaders of the Ethiopian forces during the 19th century. There is no doubt that Alula’s political adventure was accompanied by pride and heroism south of Mereb River for defeating the Italians at the battle of Adwa in 1896 and in Dogali in 1897. But depicted by Eritreans North of Mereb river for his cruelty, atrocities and raids from Tigray. According Mekaleh, an Eritrean newspaper printed in Tigrinya 16 February 1999, between 1872 to 1874, Ras Alula committed cruelty against Eritreans who at the time were native inhabitants of Adibo, Shiraro, Adi Hagerai for not paying tribute to him in the form honey, butter, goats, cows and on top of that. The experience of the Eritrean Kunamas tell of their bitter experience starting from Wube’s rule (Tigreyan) and continued in its ugliest form by Alula. Over all the Tigreyan rule over Eritreans was simply that of dominance and dominated. For the dominated they did not have any choice but to resist. One of the famous Eritrean figures of the time who do not want to be dominated was:
Matiyowos Anonni. He was native of Adi Hagerai Adiabo, from the Negede Bazza Kunama tribe. He was well known for his nickname as the hero of the Kunama with a golden afro comb. Such precious awards at the time were given to heroes like him who were able to defend their community. Matiyewos and his people continuously refused to pay taxes to the Tigrayan ruler as a sign of their discontent. The message to the Tigreyan rulers was crystal clear, that the Kunamas were defiant. As time goes by, disagreements became very clear and the threat of attack from the Tigreyans was also blunt. Matiyowos was a very strong and principled man, who refused to give an inch of his territory to raiders like Alula. At the same time, he was a realistic man who knew he faced imminent attack from the Tigrayan rulers, so preparations in case of an attack were in place. As a result of his defiance to the Tigrayan rulers, his people even dedicated a song celebrating his heroism as follows. (My own translation)
                     Matiyowos the hero, would defeat the invaders and kick them back to their county.
                     He would defend the land of the Kunamas to the last blood as it is his duty              
                     He is waiting for them with his tribe Negede Baza Kunama ready
                     Who is going to confront him as he is the most powerful and sturdy
                     His Sword is ready with its sharp blades, hot and steady.
                     He will amputate your bodies to make you forever disable and unsteady.
                     His is well equipped with his bullets loaded to shoot you lot –the very shady.
 Alula, annoyed by Matiyowa’s defiance and the fame he was receiving from his people, was going through sleepless nights. At one point, Alula amassed 20.000 troops in the vicinity of Kunama lands in order to invade. Undeterred by Alulas sabre rattling, the Kunama leader stood firm and refused to pay tribute.  Incensed by Matiyowos rejection of his advances, Alula threatened him and his community with extinction. The Eritrean Kunama leader refused to bow, instead he sent message warning that he will fight to death with his people, for the soul and land of the Kunamas. The relationship between the two rival rulers, soured to a breaking point.  Alula, realizing that he will face a humiliating defeat, climbed down and decided to send a delegation to make peace. Distrustfully however, Alula was going to break his promise and was busy plotting to attack them while a truce was signed between the two warring factions. For the Kunamas convinced by their agreement that they will not be attacked – carried on their day to day activities as normal. Unexpectedly, in the middle of the night they were attacked and realized that they were mislead by Alula. The bonds of trust he gave them had been breached. It became hell on earth, as they never anticipated an attack from his forces. The Kunamas found themselves being attacked from all direction of their community and Alulas Machiavellian cynical ploy of deceit and deviousness turned the night into terror and bloodshed. The Kunamas were stabbed in the back, it was bitter experience of a promise given and then abandoned the next day. Thus the agreement of peace entered between the two rulers turned out to be false, shredded into pieces becoming, travesty of justice for the Kunamas.As a result of the vicious attack about 7.000 innocent men women and children were killed and about 10.000 Kunamas were kidnapped, their property looted and they were forced into slavery. Some men were forced to become farmers, some women were handed to the Tigreyan leaders, while some were handed to the Monasteries of Debre Damo, Debre Alanikos, Debre Menkor etc. Matiyowos was believed to have been killed alongside his people. With Matiywos out of the way, the road to Medri Bahri was open. So Alullas ambition to wipe out the Kunamas was fulfilled by deception.  Thus Machiavellian characteristic of being sneaky and cunning was justified in the sense that political expediency is placed above morality and the use of deceit to maintain the authority and carry out the policies of a ruler was accepted.  Such atrocities against the Kunama is well documented, D Avry says two thirds of the Kunamas and Nara people were presumed to have been annihilated (1996 Page 1180) by Alulas invading army. Not only that, for those women and children who out of fear hid in caves and mountains, the cruelty that was shown against them was systematic and barbarous. Another example of the cruelty of Alulua was that whenever they discover that women and children are hiding in caves and once their hiding place is identified, they would pile fire woods at the entrance of the cave or mountain then set it on fire. Simultaneously they would also sprinkle in chilly powder known Berbere causing them to suffocate or vomit, they would then be forced out of their hiding place and become bate to the predators.  Such aggression, cruelty and brutality were intended to force people into submission (Natty page 577).  To reflect the suffering the Kunamas suffered under Alula, they would say to people who cause them pain and agony  “ALAKE EBINI” meaning “I hope you get captured by Abyssinia” as their treatment of prisoners of war was cruel, inhumane and brutal.(See scanned Eritrean News Paper printed in 16 February 199 in pages 8 and 9 about Matiowoses and his resistance and heroism fighting Abyssinian rulers in the Eritrean highlands) Alulas cruelty against Eritreans was not confined only to the Kunamas. For instance in the battle of Adwa, General Alula, leading Ethiopian troops against the kingdom of Italy, scored decisive victory and in the battle there were about 800 Eritrean men captured who fought with the Italians against Alula. The captured men faced inhuman treatment by their captors but more shocking was that, Alulas cruelty was so barbaric towards them and all were punished by havingtheir right arms and left legs amputated.
Hence Tigrayan rulers, starting from Wube Haile Maryam, who was one of the cruellest rulers of his time, followed by  Alula who betrayed the Kunamas of Eritrea first by breaking his promise not to attack them later betrayed them. In the second time round he also betrayed another Eritrean hero to his death, using his sweet tongue full of promise while the Saints were listening.
The Second Eritrean hero was Raisi Weldemicaiel Solomon: Born in 1820 and died in 1906 aged 85 years was Ras Prince of Medri Bahri Kingdom of Hamasien and Hazega clan during the 19th century. In Ethiopia, Emperor Tedros II appointed Hailu Teweldemedhin Eritrean as governor of Hamasien (a region of Eritrea).  When Tewdoros died, his successor, Yohannes IV replaced Hailu with Weldemicaiel, causing a rivalry between Hailu and Weldemicaiel.   As time went by, the relationship between Yohannes Tigreyan and Weldemichail Hero North of Mereb Milash became strained and Weldemicaiel feared Yohannes would re appoint his rival opponent.  Both men were members of different ruling houses of Midri Bahri (Hazega and Tzeazega).  By the way Ras Weldemicaiel was a strong opponent of foreign expansion and interference into his sphere of influence. At one point due to the interference of the Abyssinian rulers he decided to retreat to the lowlands around Aylet in order to strength his position rallying his troops behind him to confront Tigreyan rulers who kept on meddling into his affairs. His absence was seen as a welcome opportunity to replace him. So Abyssinian rulers swiftly appointed his rival Hailu as a substitute in his absence. Furious with his rivals appointment as a substitute Weldemicaiel mocked him as a stooge for Alula and began to co-operate with the Egyptians as a counter balance in order to tackle Alula. He returned back to the highlands well equipped to get rid of his rival. War broke out between the two rival houses of Midri Bahri and Weldemicaiel defeated his rival Hailu of Tzeazega at the battle of Woki Dibba – few miles West of Asmara. In the aftermath of the battle Weldemicaiel proved his status as a hero of the highlands and became a force to be reckoned with. Yohannes, unable to consolidate power in the Eritrean highlands, sent messages to Weldemicaiel offering to forgive him for any past crimes if he submitted to him. Weldemicaiel adamantly refused to comply. What was interesting then, was that the defeat of Alula’s appointee was not received well by Alula and Emperor Yohannes. They were infuriated by Weldemicaiel’s swift action to get rid of Hailu. Immediately afterwards there were crisis talks between Emperor Yohannes and Alula as what to do about Weldemicaiel? Yohannes, unable to have a free hand in the Eritrean highlands, asked Alulula, to end Weldemicaiel’s revolt once and for all, at any cost. But Alula was aware of the difficulties fighting Weldemicaiel. Watching his appointee defeated, Alula decided that he must defeat Weldemicaiel at any cost if he is to have free hand in the highlands. As a result, Yohannes and Alula decided to send Aba Gala with 10.000 well equipped troops to defeat Weldemicaiel so as to eject him once and for all. Yohannes convinced himself that Weldemicaiel can be defeated, the outcome however was completely different. The 10.000 soldiers who came to get rid of Weldemicaiel were themselves defeated bringing shame humiliation upon the Emperor and Alula. In brief, the story of Eritrean highlands in the last 100 years tells us that, any foreign actors who try to impose central control on them with a heavy hand as the Abyssinia’s did, met sustained resistance by the Eritrean rulers.Moreover the people of the highlands of Eritrea never considered themselves to be part of Tigray and that is why on many occasions war was declared on them to force them to submit to the Raiders, but persistently committed themselves to making Eritrea ungovernable for Imperial Ethiopia.
Emperor Yohannes and Alula aware of the difficulties fighting Weldemicaiel decided to use their sweet tongue to lure their opponent into their honey trap. Weldemicaiel was bombarded with promise after promise that nothing will happen to him and a peaceful solution to the rivalry between them should be found. Then Abyssinian rulers sent an invitation with a sweet words to bring him back into their sphere. In addition, Alula swore on the Bible that he will never be attacked or killed, giving him assurance that his title as a ruler of his kingdom of Medri Bahri would be officially recognized by the King of the kings. Deceived by the sweet tongue of Alula, he was advised to come and sign a peace treaty with the Emperor in Axum in 1879.Naively Weldemicaiel accepted the offer to go to Axum. On his way to Tigray, the true believer of God was met by the people of Akeleguzai and Seraye before crossing the border Mereb river to Ethiopia. The collective advice given to him was to curtail his visit for fear that he may be abducted, or he may never return back to his land and people. They begged him not to go to sign a treaty with the Emperor.  Weldemicaiel, a very religious and a strong believer of God Almighty, made up his mind. He was very trusting man and rejected the advice given to him by his people. Convincing himself that Alula has made a Solomon oath not to attack or kill him, he went to sign the peace treaty anyway. After crossing Mereb river on the Ethiopian side he reached two small sharp mountains in Tigray called Tubbe Gorzo near Adwa. However Alula the treacherous General waiting for the Eritrean hero to arrive into an area where it is conducive for surprise attack. The hero of the Eritrean highlands was ambushed by Alulas army breaking his promise yet again, for the second time and decided to imprison the hero of the Eritrean highlands in a place called Mariam Shewit. Weldemicaiel could not believe what had happen to him? That he was tricked into accepting the invitation and was mortified to find himself betrayed by the Tigrayan ruler. Immediately afterwards, Weldemicaiel was placed in forced retirement in caves near Axum. Not sure what to do with him, Emperor Yohannes with Alula, called three wise men from South of Ethiopia, two from the Amhara region and one from Oromia and gave them the authority to decide the fate of Weldemicaiel. The three wise men were puzzled why they were called to decide the fate of the Eritrean prisoner. Soon afterwords they realize that Weldemicaiel was a very strong determined leader with lots of followers. So they decide that if he is killed then, the situation could be unpredictable or perhaps a time bomb. Equally if they let him go, it will be unpredictable or volatile that his release could also have an adverse effect on the leaders of Tigray. A compromise solution was found that the prisoner should be left to rot in his cave. So the judgement of the three wise men was to accepted the long and agonizing life imprisonment in a small cave, to die without any mercy.During this agonizing period, Weldemicaiel stature was demeaned with a severe loss of dignity by his naivety and trusting behaviour to believe the call for brotherly peace by Alula Aba Nega.  For the hero of Medri Bahri, his view was very clear, keeping promises is honourable and allows for a smooth functioning of society. It must be honoured in order for society to function.  Alula Aba Nega broke his promise again and was called “WEDI TELAM MAHLA” by Weldmicaiel, which (translated from Tigrinya) means a man who broke his promise. In other words Alula was described as a man prepared to say one thing in print and another in private, a very devious tactic.  Excruciating in caves without any light, he had no way to retaliate against his powerful enemy. Reduced to cursing Alula Aba Nega with sad lamentation saying yes, it is a sin to break a promise you made before God, which will result in grave consequence. You have not taken that vow very seriously, but God took it seriously and when you disobey his command there will be consequences. He bitterly regretted believing that he would be safe.  In addition, he said “those who breath lies will not escape the wrath of God”. While these were his last words, at the same time feeling emotional and feeling low because of his lost pride and dignity by his captors, he still vowed roaring in his own words saying:  
I am glad you did not chose time/place to fight me in battlefield to prove who would be the hero.
In the eyes of God, I accepted your call for peace with honesty and integrity as brave soldier as Bravado.
Your arts and science of deception/trickery caught me defenceless and brought me close to a blazing inferno. 
With God, I will rejoice drinking water and eat Burkuta in the warmth of camp-fire as I am still the hero.The below is the translation of the above, written in Tigrinya using English letters:ANES  –—  MARIAM  –—   AMINE  –—   METZYEKA ––    KHIBIL——– EHIN—- MIHIN
KEDDAE —  KEMAKHA  —  TELAM    MAHLA    –—-  KINDAY    KAYDIHINAfter his defying words in his prison cell, he is believed to have died in Emba selam prision around Axum in 1906. (see, the story of Ras Weldemicaiel and the circumstance that lead to his final death in AKSUM.) Alternatively just Google the story of Ras Weldmicaiel told by Lingo.Due to the bitter experience of the betrayal of the Kunamas by Alula, there is mistrust felt towards the leaders of Tigray region by the people North of Mereb river. That is why the winding road that goes from Asmara to Keren is named LIBI Tigray as you can see in the image at the top of the article, this is an expression of resentment over unfair betrayal of Eritrean heroes experienced at the hands of Tigreyan rulers including the present TPLF leadership like Dr Debrezion and his entourage. The death of Weldemicaiel, the hero of Midri Bahri opened the way for Alula to rule the Highlands of Medre Bahri unopposed for 10 years from 1879 to 1889. Alula was the last Tigrayan person in Eritrea before the Italian occupation of the whole of Eritrea. Then in 1889 Menelik became emperor and signed legal documents with the Italians in the agreement of Wichale to hand over the Eritrea highlands to the Italians. In return Italy promised Menelik to rule unhindered in his area plus he was promised that he will receive financial assistance and military supply. At last the cause of rivalry between North and South of Mereb river was signed, sealed and delivered-case closed. With the treaty of Wichale signed in 1889, Alula headed back to his place south of Mereb as the Italians became responsible for Mereb North, but Alula couldn’t escape the atrocities and betrayal that he committed against Eritrean heroes and as the Indian concept of KARMA tells us time caught up with Alula that the things he was doing to others was done to him. That when Alula returned back to his home Town of Tembien, he wanted to settle an old score against another Tigrayan rival Hagos of Tembien and Alula was eventually killed, and as it is sometimes said “Man is always unmade by himself” he caused his own destruction suffering a gun shot from his old rival and died in 15 February 1897. (4) IN CONCLUSION: Betrayal is an act of deliberate disloyalty destroying trust, by breaking an agreement to endanger your rivals. Jesus Christ was betrayed by Judas, the British Member of Parliament betrayed his voters and was kicked out of office. When it comes to the Tigrayan rulers, they have repeatedly betrayed the people of Eritrea in the past and present. Although, many of those leaders who plotted against the Eritrean nation were defeated in war those who were spared were also visited by Karma (sudden death) and for those who have not (TPLF leadership) while politically it is game over for them, it wont be long before they are caught. Therefore I hope the present TPLF leaders will come to their senses and cooperate with the Federal Government of Ethiopia and the Government of Eritrea and vacate sovereign Eritrean territory in line with International Law for the sake of the people of Eritrea, Tigray and Ethiopia. Otherwise their days are numbered, if you they do not cooperate, they will be suffocated financially, economically,  and politically. They have no where to run, time is not on their side and by hook or crook they will have no choice but to surrender waving the white flag. By the way they should also bear in mind that President Isayas will never, never, never visit, Tigray while they are in occupation of Eritrean territory. Instead he will go over their head to make deals with the Federal Government of Ethiopia, because TPLF regime still remain a menace and existential threat to the people and Government of Eritrea and to the government and people of Ethiopia. So La Lotta continua – meaning that the war with the (TPLF leadership) must go on, and on, and on, until they are apprehended or brought to justice, bringing their deception and trickery to its final end..
(5)  THE BATTLE OF ADWA 1 March 1896 (source: wikipedia)Location, Adwa, Ethiopia.  Result: Ethiopian victory
Belligerent   BelligerentETHIOPIA  
Supported by Russia & France   ITALY
Tekle Haymanot
Ras Makonnen
Ras Mikael
Ras Alula
Taytu Betul
Ras Mengesha
Fit’awrari Gebeyehu Goraw †
Fitawrari Habte Giyorgis
Fitawrari Damtew †
Dejazmach Balcha Safo
Russian Empire Nikolay LeontievKingdom of Italy Oreste Baratieri
Vittorio Dabormida †
Giuseppe Arimondi †
Matteo Albertone (POW)
Giuseppe EllenaSTRENGTH  
80,000 armed with rifles
20,000 armed with spears and swords
8,600 horses
42 artillery pieces3,867 killed
~8,000 wounded  STRENGTH
10,443 Italian soldiers plus 4,076 Eritrean askaris. Total 14,519.
56 light mountain artillery pieces and rifles of an obsolete pattern6,394 killed
1,428 wounded
~3,000 captured
(^ including wounded)About 800 Eritrean Askaris captured were regarded as traitors by the Ethiopians had their right hands and left feet amputated. When this happened to the Eritreans the punishment they received by-the Abyssinian rulers was so cruel and barbaric. Note also the war was simply 100.000 Ethiopian soldiers versus 17.000 Italian soldiers including the Eritreans. I don’t know what the Italians were thinking. The arithmetic was completely unbalanced It was 100.000 soldiers versus 17.000 Italians.Next article to follow TPLF leaders have used their nuclear option on the people of Eritrea, what need to be done? araele13@yahoo.comSOURCES:
                       (1) Redi Bereketab: The complex Roots of the 2nd Eritrea Ethiopia war Re-examining the causes
                       (2) Travaskis GN 1960 Eritrea Colony in transition 1941-1952
                       (3) Favil L Pateman Blood Land Sex Legal and political pluralism in Eritrea.
                       (4) Mebrahtu Asfaha Enduring Peace between Ethiopia and Eritrea: The Narrative of Vices, Dishonesties, hypocrisies and Trickery that led to war. Tesfa News Archives. (5) Mekalih Eritrean News Paper in Tigrina February 1999.