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Adulis is described in the 1st century Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.

VOA Audio – ቂሐ፡ጽልሚ፡ADULIS

Adulis or Aduli (Αδουλίς in Ancient Greek) is an archeological site in the Northern Red Sea of Eritrea, situated about 30 miles south of Massawa in the Gulf of Zula. It was the port of the Kingdom of Aksum, located on the coast of the Red Sea. Adulis Bay is named after the site. It is thought that the modern town of Zula may be the Adulis of the Aksumite epoch, as Zula may reflect the local name for the Ancient Greek Adulis.

Pliny the Elder is the earliest writer to mention Adulis (N.H. 6.34). He misunderstood the name of the place, thinking the toponym meant that it had been founded by escaped Egyptian slaves. Pliny further stated that it was the ‘principal mart for the Troglodytae and the people of Aethiopia’. Adulis is also mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a guide of the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. The latter guide describes the settlement as an emporium for the ivory, hides, slaves and other exports of the interior. It may have previously been known as Berenice Panchrysos of the Ptolemies. Roman merchants used the port in the second and third century AD.

Adulis is described in the 1st century Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.
Cosmas Indicopleustes records two inscriptions he found here in the 6th century: the first records how Ptolemy Euergetes (247–222 BC) used war elephants captured in the region to gain victories in his wars abroad; the second, known as the Monumentum Adulitanum, was inscribed in the 27th year of a king of Axum, perhaps named Sembrouthes, boasting of his victories in Arabia and northern Ethiopia.

A fourth century work traditionally (but probably incorrectly) ascribed to the writer Palladius of Galatia, relates the journey of an anonymous Egyptian lawyer (scholasticus) to India in order to investigate Brahmin philosophy. He was accompanied part of the way by one Moise or Moses, the Bishop of Adulis.

Control of Adulis allowed Axum to be the major power on the Red Sea. This port was the principal staging area for Kaleb’s invasion of the Himyarite kingdom of Dhu Nuwas around 520. While the scholar Yuri Kobishchanov detailed a number of raids Aksumites made on the Arabian coast (the latest being in 702, when the port of Jeddah was occupied), and argued that Adulis was later captured by the Muslims, which brought to an end Axum’s naval ability and contributed to the Aksumite Kingdom’s isolation from the Byzantine Empire and other traditional allies, the last years of Adulis are a mystery. Muslim writers occasionally mention both Adulis and the nearby Dahlak Archipelago as places of exile. The evidence suggests that Axum maintained its access to the Red Sea, yet experienced a clear decline in its fortunes from the seventh century onwards. In any case, the sea power of Axum waned and security for the Red Sea fell on other shoulders.
Adulis was one of the first Axumite sites to undergo excavation, when a French mission to Eritrea under Vignaud and Petit performed an initial survey in 1840, and prepared a map which marked the location of thee structures they believed were temples. In 1868, workers attached to Napier’s campaign against Tewodros II visited Adulis and exposed several buildings, including the foundations of a Byzantine-like church.

Archaeological excavations at Adulis, done by the Italian Roberto Paribeni in 1907
The first scientific excavations at Adulis were undertaken by a German expedition in 1906, under the supervision of R. Sundström. Sundström worked in the northern sector of the site, exposing a large structure, which he dubbed the “palace of Adulis”, as well as recovering Axumite coinage. The expedition’s results were published in four volumes in 1913.

The Italian Roberto Paribeni excavated in Adulis the following year, discovering many structures similar to what Sundström had found earlier, as well as a number of ordinary dwellings. He found a lot of pottery: even wine amphorae imported from the area of modern Aqaba where found here during the decades of existence of the colonia of Italian Eritrea. These types now called Ayla-Axum Amphoras have since been found at other sites in Eritrea including on Black Assarca Island.

Over 50 years passed until the next series of excavations, when in 1961 and 1962 the Ethiopian Institute of Archeology sponsored an expedition led by Francis Anfray. This excavation not only recovered materials showing a strong affinities with the late Axumite kingdom, but a destruction layer. This in turn prompted Kobishchanov to later argue that Adulis had been destroyed by an Arab raid in the mid-7th century, a view that has since been partially rejected.

A pair of fragments of glass vessels were found in the lowest layers at Adulis, which are similar to specimens from the 18th Dynasty of Egypt.One very specialised imported vessel discovered at the site was a Menas flask. It was stamped with a design showing the Egyptian St. Menas between two kneeling camels. Such vessels are supposed to have held water from a spring near the saint’s tomb in Egypt (Paribeni 1907: 538, and this particular one may have been brought to Adulis by a pilgrim.

Since Eritrean Independence, the National Museum of Eritrea has petitioned the Government of Ethiopia to return artifacts of these excavations. To date they have been denied.

People to people discussion on the current situiation of qatar

Qatar-Gulf crisis: The latest updates
The latest news after Gulf countries and Egypt cut diplomatic ties with Qatar and imposed a land, sea and air blockade.The latest developments since several countries, including Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Egypt, cut ties with Qatar on June 5. (All times GMT+3)

00:20am – Tillerson: Blacklisting Muslim Brotherhood problematic

US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson has said the classification of the Muslim Brotherhood in its entirety as a “terror” group complicates the security and politics of the Middle East.

His testimony on Wednesday before the House Committee on Foreign Relations comes amid rising tensions in the Gulf, part of which centre on Qatari support for the Muslim Brotherhood.

Tillerson said it was problematic to place the entire organisation – whose members amount to more than five million, some of whom occupy positions in governments across the region – on a “terror list”.

“There are elements of the Muslim Brotherhood that have become parts of governments,” he said, pointing out parliaments in Bahrain and Turkey as examples.

“Those elements… have done so by renouncing violence and terrorism,” he said.

“So in designating the Brotherhood in its totality as a terrorist organisation… I think you can appreciate the complexities this enters into our relations with [governments in the region].”

14 June 2017
11pm – Gulf dispute tops agenda of France-Morocco talks

French President Emmanuel Macron has travelled to Morocco for a 24-hour visit for talks on battling terrorism as well as the Libyan conflict and Qatar’s dispute with its Gulf neighbours.

Ahead of Wednesday’s visit, the French presidency said Macron would discuss with Mohammed VI the dispute between Qatar and several countries, as both Paris and Rabat are keen on mediating a solution to the crisis.

“President Macron has spoken with all the heads of state of the region and called for appeasement. This efforts could converge with the mediation that Morocco wants to attempt,” it said.

A French diplomatic source said “the priority is to help resolve the crisis”.

The Elysee Palace said after Macron landed in Rabat that the French president would meet separately in Paris with the Emir of Qatar, Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad al-Thani, and the crown prince of the UAE, Sheikh Mohammad bin Zayed al-Nahyan.

The meetings are due to take place in the last week of June and are aimed at trying to defuse the Gulf dispute.

Eritrean-migrants saved in sudan
factor that is pulling Eritrean migrants to flock to Sudan, a transit that would led them to Libya or Egypt so that they can cross Mediterranean waters without any trouble. Official sources say, the number of illegal migrants arrived at Libyan or Egyptian coasts doubles during the spring season.

The recent migration deal the EU and Italy have signed with the UN-backed Libyan government to curb irregular migrants’ flow is another factor which is escalating the number of Eritrea migrants heading to Sudan then to Libya or Egypt.

Smugglers are packing more migrants recklessly before the recent deal came to effect. On that deal , the EU and Italian government have agreed to give 200m euro ($215m) , to enable Libya to curb migrant boats in the country’s territorial waters and to return Europe bounded migrants back home.

VOA interview with author tesfaye gebreab

Interviews usually take place face to face and in person, although modern communications technologies such as the Internet have enabled conversations to happen in which parties are separated geographically, such as with videoconferencing software,[2] and of course telephone interviews can happen without visual contact. Interviews almost always involve spoken conversation between two or more parties, although in some instances a “conversation” can happen between two persons who type questions and answers back and forth. Interviews can range from unstructured or free-wheeling and open-ended conversations in which there is no predetermined plan with prearranged questions,[3] to highly structured conversations in which specific questions occur in a specified order.[4] They can follow diverse formats; for example, in a ladder interview, a respondent’s answers typically guide subsequent interviews, with the object being to explore a respondent’s subconscious motives.[5][6] Typically the interviewer has some way of recording the information that is gleaned from the interviewee, often by writing with a pencil and paper, sometimes transcribing with a video or audio recorder, depending on the context and extent of information and the length of the interview. Interviews have a duration in time, in the sense that the interview has a beginning and an ending.

Eritrean indepedence day

The Independence Day of Eritrea is one of the most important public holidays in the country. It is observed on May 24 every year. On this day in 1991, Eritrean People’s Liberation Front forces moved into the capital Asmara, reinstating independence, following a 30-year-long battle against the Ethiopian military regime. Eritrea Independence Day is a national holiday, with workers given a day off from work

Electing the director of who

The WHO Executive Board selected by vote the following 3 candidates to be presented to World Health Assembly as nominees for the post of Director-General of WHO.

Five candidates were interviewed by Member States today prior to the vote. The names of the 3 nominees were announced at a public meeting on Wednesday evening, 25 January 2017.

Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus
Dr David Nabarro
Dr Sania Nishtar
All Member States will choose among the 3 nominees by vote at the World Health Assembly in May 2017. The new Director-General will take office on 1 July 2017.

Cars travelling with migrants from sudan to egypt have accident and killed 11


Eritrean refugees imprisoned in gonder ethiopia >> VOA AUDIO 12-05-2017

On 27 January President Donald Trump signed an executive order halting all refugee admissions and temporarily barring people from seven Muslim-majority countries.
The move sparked numerous protests and legal challenges. A week later a federal judge in Seattle suspended it nationwide, allowing banned visitors to travel to the US pending an appeal by the administration.
Mr Trump and his supporters say the controversial executive order makes good on election promises to “make America great again”.
But what is the order, dubbed the “Muslim ban” by those rallying against it, and who exactly does it affect?
Here are some key points from the full text explained.

EU and Italy block migration >>VOA AUDIO >> eu-and-italy- to-block-migration

A COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH TO MIGRATION No Member State can effectively address migration alone. It is
clear that we need a European approach. This requires using all policies and tools at our disposal – combining internal and external policies to best effect. All actors:Member States, EU institutions, International Organisations, civil society, local authorities and third countries need to work together to make a common European migration policy a reality. The European Agenda on Migration
presented by the Commission in May 2015 set out the need for a comprehensive approach to migration management. Since then, a number of measures have been introduced to address the immediate challenge of the refugee crisis and the Commission has put in place all the important building blocks needed for a European approach to ensure strong borders,fair procedures and a sustainable system able to anticipate problems. What is needed now is a swift adoption of the Commission’s proposals by the co-legislators and the full implementation by the Member States of the
collective decisions taken.
December 2016
New Member State contributions for the EU Emergency Trust Fund for Africa: Total
resources now amount to €2.55 billion, with €2.4 billion from the Commission and
€152 million from national donors.

January 2017
Progress in making the European Border and Coast Guard fully operational: Mandatory
rapid reaction pools for 1500 border guards and equipment and new pools
for return intervention teams have been set up and stand ready to be deployed.

25 January 2017
European Commission proposes additional actions on how to better manage
migration along the Central Mediterranean Route

25 January 2017
Back to Schengen: Commission recommends the Council allow Member States to
maintain temporary controls for another three months

February 2017
Facility for Refugees in Turkey: €270 million contracted for the education of
70,000 Syrian refugee children. €2.2 billion out of the €3 billion foreseen for
2016/17 allocated, €1.46 billion contracted and €750 million disbursed so far.

3 February 2017
EU Heads of State or Government agree to a set of actions to address migration
flows along the Central Mediterranean Route

1 March 2017
Commission presents new Action Plan on Return and a Recommendation to Member
States on the efficient implementation of return procedures

Does the ethiopian government need to change its policy towards eritrea?
VOA AUDIO ክትዕ ኢትዮጵያዊያን 1ይ ክፋል >> Does the ethiopian government need to change its policy towards eritrea?
MORE VOA >>//tigrigna.voanews.com/
Ethiopia to Have New Policy Direction on Eritrea?
April 23, 2017 – Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Dessalegn hinted on Wednesday that Ethiopia may have a new policy direction replacing the existing policy towards Eritrea, according to the Reporter.

At a press conference he held on Wednesday with local journalists, Hailemariam said that his government has already finalized drafting the new policy direction regarding Eritrea and that it is expected to be tabled before the Council of Ministers very soon.
According to observers, the policy of containing and isolating Eritrea, which has been adopted by Ethiopia after the end of the war, has been effective in targeting and crippling the Eritrean regime. However, it seems that the Eritrean leader have survived all the measures taken by Ethiopia and the international community, including the tough UN economic sanctions, according to the commentators. PM Hailemariam denounced this saying that his government is always determined to bring peace with Eritrea and beyond in the East Africa.

“We have been working tirelessly to bring peace between the two states but nothing has been achieved so far owing to the nature of the Eritrean regime,” Hailemariam told the press on Wednesday.

Thus, his administration is now crafting a brand new policy that centers on creating a sustainable peace, the PM said.

“I can’t speak details of the new policy at this press conference, but I can assure you that the center of the new policy will emphasize on creating sustainable peace,” he said.

Following the end the Ethio-Eritrea War and the decision of the Boundary Commission on the conflict, Ethiopia created a five-point policy for the continuation of engagement with Eritrea: Resolving the dispute between Ethiopia and Eritrea only through peaceful means; Resolving the root causes of the conflict through dialogue with the view to normalizing relations between the two countries; Ethiopia accepts, in principle, the Ethiopia-Eritrea Boundary Commission’s Decision; Ethiopia agrees to pay its dues to the Ethiopia-Eritrea Boundary Commission and to appoint field liaison officers and also Ethiopia wishes to start dialogue immediately with the view to implementing the Ethiopia-Eritrea Boundary Commission’s decision in a manner consistent with the promotion or sustainable peace and brotherly ties between the two peoples.In a related news, the PM spoke about Ethiopia’s concern owing to the Gulf Countries growing military presence in to the Red Sea area and towards the Horn of Africa(Reporter)

VOA AUDIO >> Ethiopia-Eritrea peace initiatives policies (1ይ ክፋል)Ethiopia-Eritrea peace initiatives policies (1ይ ክፋል)

Letter to p.m.h.d.regrding no peace no war situation: Listen to VOA – Audio >>> 82631713-e1af-42ff-abdb-ab8ddadbfb75_32k

Tigrigna.voanews innovation youth in eritrea
VOA Audio >> 21f2aed4-0342-4751-b66b-a5087ae02ea2_32k

Eritrean born journalist dawit issack award unesco world press freedom award

Audio >> 09c49d23-848c-49a7-9aa1-9c45856bc671_32k
30 March 2017
Dawit Isaak, an imprisoned Eritrean-Swedish journalist, has been chosen to receive the 2017 UNESCO/Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Prize. Mr. Isaak was arrested in a crackdown on the media that occurred in September 2001. The last time he was heard from was in 2005. His present location is unknown.

An independent international jury of media professionals recommended unanimously Mr. Isaak in recognition of his courage, resistance and commitment to freedom of expression, and the recommendation was endorsed by the UNESCO Director-General Irina Bokova.

“Defending fundamental freedoms calls for determination and courage – it calls for fearless advocates,” said Irina Bokova. “This is the legacy of Guillermo Cano, and the message we send today with this decision to highlight the work of Dawit Isaak.”

“Dawit Isaak joins a long list of courageous journalists who have persevered to shed light in the dark spaces; keeping their communities informed against all odds,” said Cilla Benkö, President of the UNESCO/Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Prize 2017 Jury. “Some have given their lives in the pursuit of truth. Many have been imprisoned. Dawit Isaak has spent nearly 16 years in jail, without charge or trial. I sincerely hope that with this award the world will say, ‘Free Dawit Isaak Now.’”

Dawit Isaak, a playwright, journalist and writer, moved to Sweden in 1987, where he later became a citizen and went into self-imposed exile. After the independence of Eritrea, he returned to his homeland to become one of the founders and reporters of Setit, the first independent newspaper in the country. He was known for his critical and insightful reporting.

The Prize will be awarded during the celebration of World Press Freedom Day, 3 May, hosted in Jakarta, Indonesia this year in the presence of the Director General of UNESCO, Irina Bokova, and the President of Indonesia, Joko Widodo.

Created by UNESCO’s Executive Board in 1997, the annual UNESCO/Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Prize honours a person, organization or institution that has made an outstanding contribution to the defence and, or promotion of press freedom anywhere in the world, and especially when this has been achieved in the face of danger.

The $25,000 Prize is named in honour of Guillermo Cano Isaza, a Colombian journalist who was assassinated in front of the offices of his newspaper, El Espectador, in Bogotá, on 17 December 1986. It is funded by the Cano Foundation (Colombia) and the Helsingin Sanomat Foundation (Finland).