We don’t often give our eyes as much thought as we should, that is until something goes wrong and our vision is affected. But when you learn more about eyes, you realize just how amazing they are. Here are a few facts you may enjoy:
1. Eyes began to develop 550 million years ago. The simplest eyes were patches of photoreceptor protein in single-celled animals.
2. Your eyes start to develop two weeks after you are conceived.
Brown eyes 6.10.14
3. The entire length of all the eyelashes shed by a human in their life is over 98 feet with each eye lash having a life span of about 5 months.
4. To protect our eyes they are positioned in a hollowed eye socket, while eyebrows prevent sweat dripping into your eyes and eyelashes keep dirt out of your eyes.
5. Your eyeballs stay the same size from birth to death, while your nose and ears continue to grow.
6. An eye is composed of more than 2 million working parts.
7. Only 1/6 of the human eyeball is exposed.
8. Corneas are the only tissues that don’t have blood.
9. The human eye weights approximately just under an ounce and is about an inch across.
10. An eye cannot be transplanted. More than 1 million nerve fibers connect each eye to the brain and currently we’re not able to reconstruct those connections.
11. 80% of our memories are determined by what we see.
12. Eyes heal quickly. With proper care, it takes only about 48 hours to repair a minor corneal scratch.
13. There are about 39 million people that are blind around the world.
14. 80% of vision problems worldwide are avoidable or even curable.
15. Humans and dogs are the only species known to seek visual cues from another individual’s eyes, and dogs only do this when interacting with humans.
16. A fingerprint has 40 unique characteristics, but an iris has 256, a reason retina scans are increasingly being used for security purposes.
17. People who are blind can see their dreams if they weren’t born blind.
18. “Red eye” occurs in photos because light from the flash bounces off the back of the eye. The choroid is located behind the retina and is rich in blood vessels, which make it appear red on film.
19. 80% of what we learn is through our eyes.
20. Eyes are the second most complex organ after the brain.
The human brain is a complex organ that holds the most importance in the entire human body. The objective of this article is to give you an introduction about the parts of the brain and their functions rather than a detailed review of the research that has been done on the brain. The brain weighs just 3 pounds but is responsible for controlling behavior, interpreting the senses and initiating body movement. It is the source of intelligence in our body and is located in a bony shell that is protected by brain fluid. The brain is the reason for all of the qualities we possess that make us human beings.
Parts of the Brain and Their Functions
One of the questions that you could be asking yourself might be “what are the main parts of the brain”. Well, the following is an explanation of the parts of the brain and their functions.
The cerebrum constitutes the largest part of the human brain. It is also known as the cortex and is responsible for performing a great number of important brain functions, including action and thought processing. The cerebrum is further subdivided into four different sections that have their own respective functions and are termed as lobes. The names of these lobes are; frontal lobe, occipital lobe, parietal lobe and temporal lobe.
Frontal Lobe: The frontal lobe is tasked with the duty of performing functions like expressive language, reasoning, higher level cognition and motor skills. It is positioned at the front portion of the brain. Any damage to it can lead to changes of socialization, attention, sexual habits, etc.
Parietal Lobe: The parietal lobe is responsible for processing the information sent to the brain by the tactile senses like pain, pressure and touch. It is placed in the center of the brain. Any damage to it can cause problems with language, ability of controlling eye gaze and verbal memory.
Occipital Lobe: The occipital lobe is tasked with the duty of interpreting the information being sent to the brain by the eyes. It is positioned at the back of the brain. If it is damaged, your visual ability will be affected, like unable to recognize colors, words and objects.
Temporal Lobe: The temporal lobe is responsible for forming memories and processing the sounds being recorded by the ears. It is placed at the bottom of the brain. Any damage to it can cause problem with language skills, speech perception and memory.
The cerebellum is known as the little brain and resembles the cerebrum for it has a highly folded surface and distributed in 2 hemispheres. This part of the brain is responsible for performing functions like balance, posture and coordination of movement. Even though the cerebellum is smaller in size, it contains more neurons than the entire brain itself. The cerebellum is located at the back of the brain stem and on top of the pons.
The limbic system lies inside the cerebrum. It is also sometimes called the emotional brain because it takes charge of our emotional response. The thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala and the hippocampus are the four different sections that make up the limbic system.
Thalamus: Thalamus is a substantial piece of gray matter that lies deep inside the forebrain. It performs motor and sensory functions. All sensory information, except olfaction, sent to the brain enters the thalamus and from there is sent to the overlying cortex by neurons.
Hypothalamus: Hypothalamus is associated with functions like circadian rhythms, homeostasis, hunger, emotions and thirst. Besides these functions, it is also responsible for controlling the pituitary glands which is responsible for producing hormones. The hypothalamus is located ventral to the thalamus and is a component of the diencephalon.
Amygdala: The amygdala, as a part of the telencephalon, is positioned in the temporal lobe and is associated with fear, memory and emotion. It is present just under the front and medial sections of the temporal lobe.
Hippocampus: The hippocampus helps in learning and memory building. It is where short term memories are converted into permanent ones. Moreover, the hippocampus also helps in recalling the spatial relationships about us in the world. It is located in the basal medial section of the temporal lobe.
Written by Hannah Nichols Knowledge center
Dreams are stories and images that our minds create while we sleep. They can be entertaining, fun, romantic, disturbing, frightening and sometimes bizarre.
Why do dreams occur? Can we control them? What do they mean? Medical News Today investigates the current research on dreams and looks at possible explanations and theories as to why our minds invent these nightly musings.
You will see introductions at the end of some sections to any recent developments that have been covered by MNT’s news stories. Also look out for links to information about related conditions.
The second part of this article, discussing how we dream and why we have nightmares is available here.
Fast facts on dreams
Here are some key points about dreams. More detail and supporting information is in the main article.
Though a few people may not remember dreaming, it is thought that everyone dreams between 3 to 6 times per night.
It is thought that each dream lasts between 5 to 20 minutes.
Around 95% of dreams are forgotten by the time a person gets out of bed.
Dreaming can help you learn and develop long-term memories.
Women dream more about family, children and indoor settings when compared with men.
Recalling something from last week that has appeared in your dream is called the “dream-lag effect.”
There is a difference in the quality and quantity of dreams experienced in rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement sleep.
48% of people that feature in a dream are recognized by the person dreaming.
Blind people dream more with other sensory components compared with sighted people.
Both sleep and dream quality are affected by alcohol.
What are dreams?
Dreams are a universal human experience that can be described as a state of consciousness characterized by sensory, cognitive and emotional occurrences during sleep.27 The dreamer has reduced control over the content, visual images and activation of the memory.42
There is no cognitive state that has been as extensively studied and yet as misunderstood as much as dreaming.40,42
castle made of clouds
Dreams are full of experiences that have lifelike connections but with vivid and bizarre twists.
There are significant differences between the neuroscientific and psychoanalytic approaches to dream analysis. A neuroscientist is interested in the structures involved in dream production and dream organization and narratability. However, psychoanalysis concentrates on the meaning of dreams and on placing them in the context of relationships in the history of the dreamer.96
Reports of dreams tend to be full of emotional and vivid experiences that contain themes, concerns, dream figures, objects, etc. that correspond closely to waking life.27,28 These elements create a novel “reality” out of seemingly nothing, producing an experience with a lifelike timeframe and lifelike connections.28
Neuroscience offers explanations linked to the rapid eye movement (REM) phase of sleep as a pinpoint for where dreaming occurs.28
Phases of sleep
There are five phases of sleep in a sleep cycle:
Stage 1 – light sleep, eyes move slowly, and muscle activity slows. This stage forms 4-5% of total sleep
Stage 2 – eye movement stops and brain waves (fluctuations of electrical activity that can be measured by electrodes) become slower, with occasional bursts of rapid waves called sleep spindles. This stage forms 45-55% of total sleep
Stage 3 – extremely slow brain waves called delta waves begin to appear, interspersed with smaller, faster waves. 4-6% of total sleep
Stage 4 – the brain produces delta waves almost exclusively. It is very difficult to wake someone during stages 3 and 4, which together are called “deep sleep.” There is no eye movement or muscle activity. People awakened while in deep sleep do not adjust immediately and often feel groggy and disoriented for several minutes after they wake up. This forms 12-15% of total sleep
Stage 5 – REM – breathing becomes more rapid, irregular and shallow, eyes jerk rapidly in various directions, and limb muscles become temporarily paralyzed. Heart rate increases, blood pressure rises, and males develop penile erections. When people awaken during REM sleep, they often describe bizarre and illogical tales – dreams. Forms 20-25% of total sleep time.
Slow-wave sleep refers to stages 3 and 4 of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep.
Why do we dream?
There are several hypotheses and concepts as to why we dream. Are dreams merely part of the sleep cycle or do they serve some other purpose?
Possible explanations for why we dream include:
To represent unconscious desires and wishes
To interpret random signals from the brain and body during sleep
To consolidate and process information gathered during the day
To work as a form of psychotherapy.
From converging evidence and new research methodologies, researchers have speculated that dreaming:
Is offline memory reprocessing – consolidates learning and memory tasks.79,90,91
Is a subsystem of the waking default network, which is active during mind wandering and daydreaming. Dreaming could be seen as cognitive simulation of real life experiences.24
Participates in the development of cognitive capabilities.17
Is psychoanalytic; dreams are highly meaningful reflections of unconscious mental functioning.79
Is a unique state of consciousness that incorporates three temporal dimensions: experience of the present, processing of the past, and preparation for the future.56
Provides a psychological space where overwhelming, contradictory, or highly complex notions can be brought together by the dreaming ego that would be unsettling while awake. This process serves the need for psychological balance and equilibrium.67
Evidence from laboratory studies indicates that everyone dreams. Although a small percentage may not remember dreaming at all or claim that they do not, it is thought that most people dream between 3 to 6 times a night, with each dream lasting between 5 to 20 minutes.
There are factors that can potentially influence who can remember their dreams, how much of the dream remains intact and how vivid it is.
Ageing is often associated with changes in sleep timing, structure and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity.
Scientific literature agrees that dream recall progressively decreases from the beginning of adulthood – not in old age – and that dream reports become less intense. This evolution occurs faster in men than women, with gender differences in the content of dreams.55
According to a small number of research papers, patients suffering degenerative dementia dream less than healthy older people. In Alzheimer’s disease, this could be linked to the decrease of REM sleep and wasting of associative sensory areas of the brain’s outer layer.
A study of 108 male and 110 female dreams found no differences between the amount of aggression, friendliness, sexuality, male characters, weapons, or clothes that feature in the dream’s content. However, women’s dreams featured a higher number of family members, babies, children, and indoor settings than men.98,99
In another study, men reported more instances of dreaming about aggression than women. Women had marginally longer dreams with more characters than men. The men in the study dreamt about other men twice as often as they did about women while women dreamt about both sexes equally.
Dream recall is heightened in patients with insomnia and their dreams reflect the stress associated with their condition. The stressor of breathing-related dreams in sleep apnea patients is rare, whereas those with narcolepsy have more bizarre and negatively toned dreams.
Top Ten Most Important Things In Life
God is the most important thing ever! He created all the things on this list if you think about it.M+195
That is true.
God is the only person who loves for real.
Satan can’t defeat god.M+147
AMEN! BEST THING I HAVE EVER READ IN MY LIFE! KEEP POSTING THINGS LIKE THIS AND SHARE THEM WIH OTHERS. MOST PEOPLE DON’T READ THE BIBLE, BUT IF PEOPLE READ THESE SMALL “STORIES” THAT REALLY DID HAPPEN THEN, MAYBE, THEY’LL FIND THEIR WAY TO HEAVEN! 🙂 GOD BLESS YOU FOR THIS “STORY” THAT REALLY DID HAPPEN.M+81
God is entirely important. When He is #1 Everything else falls in place.Mnew
Love towards your family, friends and everybody else. Love, that can turn to stone the anger in a traffic jam, get you through annoyances and pain inflicted by others. It is what motivates you and shows you the best of all ways to follow through any situation, however simple that feeling may be. You work to take advantage of the wonderful working opportunities that the world has to offer (and living conditions), accomplish yourself and give a goal to your life, but doing more than the minimum there is just a bonus… For you could spend a whole life with love to give and receive and only that, and still be happy.
Love. Print it all over your life. Simple as that. – PinkflASHESM+120
Love and music were a tough choice. “When the power of love overcomes the love of power the world will know peace” Jimi Hendrix.M+53
Why is God above love? I mean, I’m not an atheist at all, I believe that there could be something out there, but seriously, Loving one another is more important than loving a God that might not even exist; and if God does exist, God will accept you for your love to others.
Love makes the world go round! (not literally, aha). – Gasmaskboi19371945M+27
Because love is from God. God is love, the ultimate and greatest example of love. Humans love because He first loved us.M+8
The God of my life is real! He changes us from within. So me&you can know Him as the Saviour of our life.Mnew
I think family is really the only thing you actually have and I believe they are the most important and I really adore my familyM+90
They are persons who will be there to listen and love…M+52
Family stay with you at any situation
This is one of the great advantage from family and none of us never realise this at any time. You may have lots of friends or relations or office mates. They will definitely be with you in your happy times or any successful achievements. But, your parents or sisters or brothers are the only one will stay with you in your hard and difficult times. Do you know what? , your mum and dad are the only one who understands you much more than any other people in the world. Because they are your creators and they are the only ones travelling with you from the beginning. So they understand your feelings and always there for you whenever you need someone abundantly. This is the power of family. There are many people can help you, but family will help you whenever you are alone.M
Family is the most important thing in life because it is worth so much and brings love and hope to people.Mnew
This is about the most important after God, what can you do without good health? Nothing!M+64
Health is definitely more important than music! Without good health, life isn’t fun! If you’re healthy you have every opportunity to do whatever you like!M+44
It should be obvious that the most important thing is health. Health enables you to meaningfully do, give, or experience every other thing on the list. Saying other things are more important is like saying self-actualization should precede physiological needs on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.M+3
This is too important if you’re not healthy then you get sick and chances could be deathMnew
It brings the world together in so many ways. – lukestheman4M+52
Doesn’t matter whether you like bieber (who sounds like a 4 year old on helium) or a band like disturbed or breaking benjamin (which are like lap dances to your ears). Music has always united and it’ll damn sure stay that way. – Giusti97M+28
Everyone love at least one genre! That’s why I love listing to itM+21
Music is so important, I don’t know if I could live with out it, it helps us with many problems and puts a good beat in our soul.Mnew
Second to god this is the most important item on the list (in my opinion). Too many people believe that “friends come and go,” but I know what real friendship is. Friends can become your family. And true friends are lifelong. They’ll be with you forever and ever, but only if you want them to. The amazing thing about friendship is the fact that two or more people, who come from alternate cultures, places, and families, began to cherish each other. I believe the number one reson friendship has lost it’s meaning is because the word itself is so misused (expecaly in the USA), it isn’t that people chose bad friends really it’s that we chose bad people to call friends, there’s a boundary between acquantnce and friend, and people need to learn it. What about family some would ask? Really when it comes to family vs (true) friendship, I prefer friendship, but other people have preferences. I say that they should generally be seen equal in priority, but the choice of the one that means the most …moreM+35
You couldn’t possibly live without friends because without friends you wouldn’t have anyone to share a joke with or a beerM+32
Who put money on the list? If anything that makes life worse because of all the crime and wars it causes.M+24
Seneca : ” Wherever there is a human being, there is an opportunity for a friendship and kindness “Mnew
This means I am the source of my own happiness whether it’s about what I am doing, what I like to have, because if I am happy about myself then it usually shared to someone else. When I am finished a project I like, it makes me happy and I would probably treat myself a nice vacation trip, shopping, taking family trip, making other people happy buy using their services and having great times with family and loved ones.M+27
I would have to agree with the philosopher Aristotle. who stated that happiness, or what he called eudaimonia, is the most important thing in life. True happiness is the one true end in life, everything else is a means used to achieve true happiness. For example, if you’re healthy, you’re happy. Love leads to happiness. For many people knowledge brings them happiness. many people may even say that God makes them happy. Happiness is the one true goal in life, if we use our innate sense of rationality we can figure this out for ourselves. To conclude, without happiness, life would be dull and not worth living. In order to live a productive and successful life you must be happy in yourself, your work and your hobbies. Therefore, happiness must be the most important thing in life. All the empirical facts point towards it. So before voting for God or love or even family, stop and think about what you actually want from life. I’m sure most of you will want to be happy.M+3
The meaning of life… True and soleM+28
Do the same to laughter!Mnew
8 Foods and Drinks
Without them, you would die of dehydration and starvation. Without drinks, you would cough and be sick infinitely.M+30
We would die without them, it’s more important than friends and that’s a fact. How could friends be above it? People are idiots.M+12
We would die to starvation like every child that is homeless happensM+12
Hell Yeah this is important… We would die without this literally I love foodMnew
Knowledge is what gets you through life. Without it, you are doomed.M+66
Knowledge shld come before friends because that will help you choose the good from the badM+28
Without knowledge, you are nothing. A monkey cannot reflect on it’s actions and the values of life. Loving with no knowledge is like living without knowing you are living. Fools.M+13
Knowledge is powerMnew
Parents help you the most throughout life and they produce us with money and food and keep us in a safe environmentM+43
They gave birth to us, this should be secondM+33
Important but at some moment in your life you have to cut the ” sanitary cordon ” or you will not be able to lead your life like you want. This doesn’t mean that suddenly your parents are unimportant but everybody has to lead their own lives. You don’t follow orders your all life from parents.M+1
Parents are unique
Italian Colonization (1890-1941)
From 1870, Italians started settling along the Eritrean coast. To counter the French expansion in the region, the United Kingdom changed its position of supporting Egyptian rule in Eritrea to supporting the Italian colonisation of Eritrea. In 1885, following Egypt’s retreat from the region, the British helped Italian troops to occupy Massawa, which was then united to the already colonised port of Assab to consolidate Italy’s coastal possession.
In 1889, Italy took advantage of the uncertain situation created by the death of Emperor Yohannes IV to occupy the Highlands with the aid of Eritrean auxiliaries. This occupation was accepted by the new Ethiopian monarch, Menelik II. On 1 January 1890, the Italian king announced the creation of the colony of Eritrea, taking its name from the ancient Greek name for the Red Sea, Erythreus. Massawa became the capital of the new colony, before being replaced by Asmara in 1897.
The seizure by Italians of huge swathes of agricultural fields in the highlands from the indigenous population sparked an anticolonial revolt led by Bhata Hagos, a former commander in the Ethiopian army. In response, the Italians invaded the Tigray region but faced the resistance of Ethiopian troops, who defeated them in the battle of Adwa in 1896. In the peace treaty that followed, Emperor Menelik II renounced Ethiopian claims to the Italian colony in exchange for the recognition of Ethiopia as an independent State.
The Italian administration launched its first development projects in Eritrea from the late 1880s. The construction of the Eritrean railway started in 1887 and the first line connecting Massawa to Saati, 27 kilometers inland from the coast, was completed in 1888. It reached Asmara in 1911. In addition, Italians built an infrastructure of ports, roads, telecommunications, factories, administrative centres and police stations that unified the colony under a centralised government. Many historians and specialists trace the development of a national consciousness to that time.
Eritrea’s position in Red Sea trade had been overshadowed by the earlier commercial recognition of the territories of Sudan, Abyssinia, and French Somallland, which surround it on the land sides, and of the leading Red Sea port of Aden. It therefore remained in an obscurity which kept it from the direct notice of world commercial influences that would have done much to develop its economic possibilities.
The enterprising and energetic Italian officials of the colony had faith in its ultimate 1mportance as a factor in Red Sea commerce, and succeeded in bringing about a sixfold increase in the total annual value of the colony’s trade during the comparatively short period of 10 years ending with 1918. This remarkable result lifted Eritrea from commercial obscurity, and demands for the colony the attention and interest of world traders, and particularly of those who were interested in Red Sea trade.
By the 1920s African slaves in Arabia fell into two categories, namely, those who were sold into slavery in the Hejaz as children by their parents or relations whom they had accompanied on the pilgrimage. The other category consists of slaves taken from Abyssinia, and presumably smuggled through remote and unoccupied portions of Eritrea and French Somaliland to the Red Sea.
The feeling of belonging to one nation was reinforced by the large scale enrolment of Eritreans as askaris (soldiers) in the Italian colonial army, which participated in the two Italo-Ethiopian wars (1895-1896 and 1935-1936) as well as in the war against Turkey in Libya (1911-1912). At the same time, the Italian administration developed policies intended to limit the development of an Eritrean elite. In 1932, the Fascist government expelled Protestant missionaries, the only source of Eritrean education beyond fourth grade, and limited the access of all Eritreans, including those of mixed blood, to schools, jobs and social services in urban areas.
From 1922, the rise of Benito Mussolini to power in Italy transformed the colony by making it his base for implementing his expansionist ambitions in the Horn of Africa. In 1935, thousands of Italian workers and soldiers poured into Eritrea in preparation of the second invasion of Ethiopia. In May 1936, Mussolini declared the birth of the Africa Orientale Italiana, the Italian East Africa Empire comprising Eritrea, Somaliland, and the newly conquered Ethiopia. Eritrea became the industrial center of this empire. At that time, around 60 per cent of working-age male Eritreans found employment in the administration and in the 2,138 Eritrean factories in Eritrea in 1939; others were conscripted into the Italian army.
Italian colonialism lasted over fifty years. It did not completely change Eritrean society, nor was its influence evenly distributed. However, its lasting impact on the history of Eritrea cannot be denied. Italian colonialism, as was true of all European colonialisms, forcefully established Eritrea’s boundaries; and by bringing under one administration all peoples within these boundaries, opened up a new chapter in the history of Eritrea. Using Italian skills, but mainly relying on Eritrean human and material resources, Italian colonialism built cities and ports, highways and railroads, factories and modem farms. It introduced conscription. Further, it created a condition where Eritrean citizens from all corners of the country were introduced to each other and gained common experiences. The extent of colonial influence may have varied from place to place (some might not have been touched), but the ever expanding interaction among Eritreans, combined with their reaction to increasing Italian oppression and racism, sowed the seeds of Eritrean national consciousness.
History of Africa borders after slavery and how, when, who created the borders of africa countries. Before Africa was divided into tribes that it was the way they knew the borders of each tribes. Despite current borders of africa countries people still devided mentally into tribes. That why some of conflicts in some Africa countries are originated by tribes issues. Therefore, let have little bit of explanation about the Africa maps above to have better understanding of “The Scramble of Africa”:Before European colonization. 7th to 16th century
Colonialism had a destabilising effect on a number of ethnic groups that is still being felt in African politics. Before European influence, national borders were not much of a concern, with Africans generally following the practice of other areas of the world, such as the Arabian Peninsula, where a group’s territory was congruent with its military or trade influence. The European insistence of drawing borders around territories to isolate them from those of other colonial powers often had the effect of separating otherwise contiguous political groups, or forcing traditional enemies to live side by side with no buffer between them. For example, although the Congo River appears to be a natural geographic boundary, there were groups that otherwise shared a language, culture or other similarity living on both sides. The division of the land between Belgium and France along the river isolated these groups from each other. Those who lived in Saharan or Sub-Saharan Africa and traded across the continent for centuries often found themselves crossing borders that existed only on European maps.
European territorial claims on the African continent in 1914
In the mid-nineteenth century, European explorers became interested in exploring the heart of the continent and opening the area for trade, mining and other commercial exploitation. In addition, there was a desire to convert the inhabitants to Christianity. The central area of Africa was still largely unknown to Europeans at this time . A prime goal for explorers was to locate the source of the River Nile. Expeditions by Burton and Speke (1857-1858) and Speke and Grant (1863) located Lake Tanganyika and Lake Victoria. The latter was eventually proven as the main source of the Nile. With subsequent expeditions by Baker and Stanley, Africa was well explored by the end of the century and this was to lead the way for the colonization which followed.
The Berlin Conference of 1884-85
The Berlin Conference of 1884-85 regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany’s sudden emergence as an imperial power. Called for by Portugal and organized by Otto von Bismarck, the first Chancellor of Germany, its outcome, the General Act of the Berlin Conference, is often seen as the formalization of the Scramble for Africa. The conference ushered in a period of heightened colonial activity on the part of the European powers, while simultaneously eliminating most existing forms of African autonomy and self-governance. From 1885 the scramble among the powers went on with renewed vigor, and in the 15 years that remained of the century, the work of partition, so far as international agreements were concerned, was practically completed.
The African continent in 1914
In the late nineteenth century, the European imperial powers engaged in a major territorial scramble and occupied most of the continent, creating many colonial nation states, and leaving only two independent nations: Liberia, an independent state partly settled by African Americans; and Orthodox Christian Ethiopia (known to Europeans as “Abyssinia”).
In nations that had substantial European populations, for example Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), Angola, Mozambique, Kenya and South Africa, systems of second-class citizenship were often set up in order to give Europeans political power far in excess of their numbers. In the Congo Free State, personal property of King Leopold II of Belgium, the native population was submitted to inhumane treatment, and a near slavery status assorted with forced labor. However, the lines were not always drawn strictly across racial lines. In Liberia, citizens who were descendants of American slaves had a political system for over 100 years that gave ex-slaves and natives to the area roughly equal legislative power despite the fact the ex-slaves were outnumbered ten to one in the general population.
Europeans often altered the local balance of power, created ethnic divides where they did not previously exist, and introduced a cultural dichotomy detrimental to the native inhabitants in the areas they controlled. For example, in what are now Rwanda and Burundi, two ethnic groups Hutus and Tutsis had merged into one culture by the time German colonists had taken control of the region in the nineteenth century. No longer divided by ethnicity as intermingling, intermarriage, and merging of cultural practices over the centuries had long since erased visible signs of a culture divide, Belgium instituted a policy of racial categorization upon taking control of the region, as racially based categorization and philosophies were a fixture of the European culture of that time. The term Hutu originally referred to the agricultural-based Bantu-speaking peoples that moved into present day Rwanda and Burundi from the West, and the term Tutsi referred to Northeastern cattle-based peoples that migrated into the region later. The terms described a person’s economic class; individuals who owned roughly 10 or more cattle were considered Tutsi, and those with fewer were considered Hutu, regardless of ancestral history. This was not a strict line but a general rule of thumb, and one could move from Hutu to Tutsi and vice versa.
The Belgians introduced a racialized system; European-like features such as fairer skin, ample height, narrow noses were seen as more ideally Hamitic, and belonged to those people closest to Tutsi in ancestry, who were thus given power amongst the colonised peoples. Identity cards were issued based on this philosophy.
War world I
During World War I, there were several battles between the United Kingdom and Germany, the most notable being the Battle of Tanga, and a sustained guerrilla campaign by the German General Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck. After World War I, the former German colonies in Africa were taken over by France and the United Kingdom.
During this era a sense of local patriotism or nationalism took deeper root among African intellectuals and politicians. Some of the inspiration for this movement came from the First World War in which European countries had relied on colonial troops for their own defense. Many in Africa realized their own strength with regard to the colonizer for the first time. At the same time, some of the mystique of the “invincible” European was shattered by the barbarities of the war. However, in most areas European control remained relatively strong during this period.
In 1935, Benito Mussolini’s Italian troops invaded Ethiopia, the last African nation not dominated by a foreign power.
World War II
Africa, especially North Africa, was an important theater of war. French colonies in Africa supported the Free French. Many black Africans were conscripted to fight against the Germans. Italy had a presence in Libya and also in Ethiopia. In the North African campaign, the Deutsches Afrika Korps under General Erwin Rommel were eventually defeated at the Second Battle of El Alamein. The Allies used North Africa as a jumping off point for the invasions of Italy and Sicily in 1943. Germany wanted to expand its interests in Africa, while Britain was anxious to protect its interests in Egypt and the route to the east.
Postcolonial era: 1945-1990
Today, Africa contains 53 countries so called “independent and sovereign countries” , most of which still have the borders drawn during the era of European colonialism.
Vincent Khapoya notes the significant resistance imperialist powers faced to their domination in Africa. Technical superiority enabled conquest and control. Africans recognized the value of European education in dealing with Europeans in Africa. They noticed the discrepancy between Christian teaching of universal brotherhood and the treatment they received from missionaries. Some established their own churches. Africans also noticed the unequal evidences of gratitude they received for their efforts to support Imperialist countries during the world wars: “Many British veterans were rewarded for their part in saving Britain and her empire with generous pensions and offers of nearly free land in the colonies.
The African soldiers were given handshakes and train tickets for the journey back home. They could keep their khaki uniforms and nothing else. These African soldiers, after returning home, were willing to use their new skills to assist nationalist movements fighting for freedom that were beginning to take shape in the colonies.”
Decolonization in Africa started with Libya in 1951 (Liberia, South Africa, Egypt, and Ethiopia were already independent). Many countries followed in the 1950s and 1960s, with a peak in 1960 with the independence of a large part of French West Africa. Most of the remaining countries gained independence throughout the 1960s, although some colonizers (Portugal in particular) were reluctant to relinquish sovereignty, resulting in bitter wars of independence which lasted for a decade or more. The last African countries to gain formal independence were Guinea-Bissau from Portugal in 1974, Mozambique from Portugal in 1975, Angola from Portugal in 1975, Djibouti from France in 1977, Zimbabwe from Britain in 1980, and Namibia from South Africa in 1990. Eritrea later split off from Ethiopia in 1993.
Effects of decolonization
In most British and French colonies, the transition to independence was relatively peaceful. Some settler colonies however were displeased with the introduction of democratic rule.
In the aftermath of decolonization, Africa displayed political instability, economic disaster, and debt dependence. In all cases, measures of life quality (such as life expectancy) fell from their levels under colonialism, with many approaching precolonial levels. Political instability occurred with the introductions of Marxist and capitalist influence, along with continuing friction from racial inequalities. Inciting civil war, black nationalist groups participated in violent attacks against white settlers, trying to end white minority rule in government.
Decolonized Africa has lost many of its social and economic institutions and to this day shows a high level of informal economic activity. In another result of colonialism followed by decolonization, the African economy was drained of many natural resources with little opportunity to diversify from its colonial export of cash crops. Suffering through famine and drought, Africa struggled to industrialize its poverty stricken work force without sufficient funds.
To feed, educate, and modernize its masses, Africa borrowed large sums from various nations, banks and companies. In return, lenders often required African countries to devalue their currencies and attempted to exert political influence within Africa. The borrowed funds, however, did not rehabilitate the devastated economies. Since the massive loans were usually squandered by the mismanagement of corrupt dictators, social issues such as education, health care and political stability have been ignored
The by-products of decolonization, including political instability, border disputes, economic ruin, and massive debt, continue to plague Africa to this present day.
Due to on-going military occupation, Spanish Sahara (now Western Sahara), was never fully decolonized. The majority of the territory is under Moroccan administration; the rest is administered by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.
In 2005, the European Union agreed to a Strategy for Africa including working closely with the African Union to promote peace, stability and good governance. However, inter-tribal war in Rwanda during the genocide of 1994, in Somalia over more than 20 years, and between Arabs and non-Arabs in Sudan indicates to some observers that Africa is still locked in tribalism and far from ready to assume its place at the global table of mature, stable and democratic states.
The Cold War in Africa
Africa was an arena during the Cold War between the U.S., Soviet Union, and even China and North Korea. Communist and Marxist groups, often with significant outside assistance, vied for power during various civil wars, such as that in Angola, Mozambique and Ethiopia. A Marxist-oriented president, Julius Nyerere, held in power in Tanzania from 1964-85, while from 1955-75, Egypt depended heavily on Soviet military assistance. The communist powers sought to install pro-communist or communist governments, as part of their larger geostrategy in the Cold War, while the U.S. tended to maintain corrupt authoritarian rulers (such as Mobutu Sese Seko of Zaire) as the price to keep countries in the pro-democracy camp.
In 1964, the Organization of African Unity (OAU) was established with 32 member states. It aimed to:
1. Promote the unity and solidarity of the African states;
2. Coordinate and intensify their cooperation and efforts to achieve a better life for the peoples of Africa;
3. Defend their sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence;
4. Eradicate all forms of colonialism from Africa; and,
5. Promote international cooperation, having due regard to the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
In 2002, the OAU was succeeded by the African Union.
Several UN peacekeeping missions have been either entirely composed of African Union forces, or they have represented a significant component as the strategy of Africans policing Africa develops. These include Liberia in 2003; Burundi in 2003; Sudan in 2004. Others speculate that since the U.S. withdrew its UN peacekeepers from Somalia-after 18 soldiers died, with 70 wounded, in Mogadishu, Somalia in October 1993 the Western powers have been very reluctant to commit ground forces in Africa. This may explain why the international community failed to intervene during the Rwandan Genocide of 1994, stationing less than 300 troops there with orders “only to shoot if shot at.”
To summarised what happened in past in Africa can’t been change but future generation and future leaders of Africa can change things around. African can’t keep blaming foreigners for causes of their suffering and lack of development in Continent. If you look in deep, African leaders or African presidens are partialy to blame for suffering of African people. African leaders are putting themselve first to stay in power then to stand for what it’s right for their people. These are best lessons for african future generation and leaders to learn from past history of Africa itself and to try to have better Africa continent in future!
Mobile Phones From 1973 To 2008: The Handsets That Made It ALL Happen
A LOT can happen in 40 years. But when it comes to technology, 40-years is like going back to the days of Moses or the Roman Empire. Case in point: the mobile phone –– and, more recently, the rise of mobile internet communications, social networks and super-fast internet. But what were the phones that made it happen; who were the pioneering brands that made today’s handsets possible; and which phone, out of the thousands launched since the 1980s, was the most important? Answer: quite a few.
The world’s first mobile phone call was made on April 3, 1973, when Martin Cooper, a senior engineer at Motorola, called a rival telecommunications company and informed them he was speaking via a mobile phone. The phone Cooper used, if you could call it that, weighed a staggering 1.1kg and measured in at 228.6x127x44.4mm. With this prototype device, you got 30 minutes of talk-time and it took around 10 hours to charge.
In 1983, Motorola released its first commercial mobile phone, known as the Motorola DynaTAC 8000X. The handset offered 30 minutes of talk-time, six hours standby, and could store 30 phone numbers. It also cost £2639 ($3995).
In the very early days of the mobile space handsets weren’t designed with consumers in mind. You’d need a couple of thousand pounds to get hold of one, and even then performance wasn’t great. Back then, mobile phones were designed with the likes of Gordon Gecko in mind, businessmen-types that drove big Jags and flew Concord. Not your average Joe.
Mobile Phone FACTS
Here is a selection of facts, courtesy of Fact Slides, about mobile phones that show just how much the world has changed since the early days of mobile communication:
In 1983, the first mobile phones went on sale in the U.S. at almost $4,000 each.
Over 250 million Nokia 1100 devices were sold, making it the bestselling electrical gadget in history.
More People In The World Have Mobile Phones Than Toilets.
So many Facebook photos and videos are uploaded via mobile that it takes up 27% of upstream web traffic.
The technology behind smartphones relies on up to 250,000 separate patents.
The average person unlocks his or her smartphone 110 times each day.
Even at the start of the 1990s this was still the case despite Nokia and NEC entering the fray. Nokia’s first ‘handheld’ mobile phone, the Mobira Cityman 900, launched in 1989 and weighed just 800g – a huge improvement over 1982’s 9.8kg Mobira Senator model.
1990 to 1995 represented an upward swerve in design and portability, with mobile devices gradually starting to appear in the hands of average consumers for the first time. By the late-1990s, mobile devices were fast becoming the norm.
T1100 was a laptop manufactured by Toshiba in 1985, and has subsequently been described by Toshiba as “the world’s first mass-market laptop computer”. Its technical specifications were comparable to the original IBM PC desktop, using floppy disks (it had no hard drive), a 4.77 MHz Intel 80C88 CPU (a variation of the Intel 8088), and a monochrome LCD capable of displaying 80×25 text and 640×200 graphics. Its original price was 1899 USD.
Toshiba T1100 In Betrieb.jpg
Toshiba 1100, discolored
Release date 1985; 31 years ago
Introductory price US$1,899 (equivalent to $4,178 in 2015)
Operating system MS-DOS 2.11
CPU Intel 80C88 @ 4.77 MHz
Memory 256 kB RAM (upgradable to 640 kB)
Storage Internal 3.5″ floppy drive, 720 kB; external 5.25″ floppy drive, 360 kB
Display Monochrome LCD / Text mode: 80×25
Input keyboard 83 keys, QWERTY
Weight 4.1 kg
Successor Toshiba T1200
With ALL my rings I thee wed: The world’s most pierced woman ties the knot… and her husband’s not got a single one
For someone covered from head to toe in nearly 7,000 metallic piercings, one extra ring might not be anything particularly special.
But the latest addition to Elaine Davidson’s collection could be her most cherished ring yet, as the world’s most pierced woman today married.
Miss Davidson, who at a recent count had an astonishing 6,925 piercings, tied the knot in Edinburgh, where she lives and runs a shop.
Big day: Miss Davidson, covered in her trademark piercings which she never removes, is seen in all-white on wedding day
Big day: Miss Davidson, covered in her trademark piercings which she never removes, is seen in all-white on wedding day
Here comes the bride: Miss Davidson, who says her rings make her ‘suffer for her art’ is led into church in Edinburgh by family and friends
Here comes the bride: Miss Davidson, who says her rings make her ‘suffer for her art’ is led into church in Edinburgh by family and friends
The 42-year-old was accompanied to a registry office in the Scottish capital wearing a white gown as well as pink and flowers around her hair.
And for the special occasion she naturally kept her trademark piercings all in place, along with green, yellow and blue paint markings on her face.
Her husband, Douglas Watson, who has no visible piercings, was dressed for the 35-minute ceremony in a dark blue suit with a blue shirt and tie.
She was also accompanied into Edinburgh Registry Office by two bridesmaids dressed in pink.
The Brazilian-born former nurse first broke the record for most piercings in May 2000, when a Guinness World Records official examined her and found 462 piercings on her body, including 192 on her face.
Miss Davidson has previously said she never removes the rings and studs, which she estimates weigh a total of around three kilos.
She also insists there is no pain involved in the piercing, and that she sleeps every night with every piercing still in place.
However, she revealed in 2009 that she doesn’t like being pieced and suffers for her art.
She said in February 2009, when she had 6,005 piercings including 1,500 that are ‘internal’: ‘I don’t enjoy getting pierced, but to break the record you have to get to a high level.
‘I wanted to break the record.
‘My family don’t even like tattoos or piercings.’
On her own website, Miss Davidson, who also sleeps on a bed of nails and has walked on fire and glass, says she enjoys extreme sports and theatre, but does not drink or smoke.